At BRIEF statement of the differences in structure of the horse and the cow is all that is necessary, and it will be found that these are more apparent than real. Comparison of the two skeletons (Platexn) will quickly show the principal points of variation, the Cervicle Vertebra Ebeing shorter and the Spinous Processes of the Dorsal Vertebra being longer, with a corresponding increase in t the height of the Scapula, with the result that the neck appears thicker and to be set lower on the shoulders than it does in the horse.
The ribs are thirteen in number on either side.
The skull of the cow is more clearly pyramidal and is shorter and wider. The feet, however, are the points where the greatest variation occurs, Four Digits being present, whilst the Splint bones are absent. The two Digits which form the cleft hoof have three Phalanges and three Sesamoids each. The second and fifth, which are mere Vestigas, and are placed behind the fetlock, do not articulate with the bones of the leg.
The very marked difference in the external appearance of the cow is due, however, to the considerable alteration which takes place in the bulk and shape of some of the muscles. Certain of these brought into action by the horse in the motions of jumping or galloping are totally undeveloped in the cow, whilst, on the contrary, the production of flesh for food purposes has caused the development of totally different features in this animal.
On the face, the Frontalir muscle, which is relatively unimportant in the horse, is greatly developed and practically covers the greater part of the Nasalis muscle. The Zygonsalines is again more developed, whilst the Ma/aris spreads over the cheek in a broad mass.
NOTE.—The muzzle of the cow has very little movement when compared with the mobile lips of the horse, and hence the lesser development of the muscles governing same.
In the neck the Splenius presents different features. It is quite a thin muscle and partly blends with several others, principally the Tracbelo Alastoideus, which is, again, a small muscle in comparison with that of the horse. The Rhomboideus is well developed, however, and extends further and is covered by the Traprzius, again much thicker and broader. In the forearm there is little difference, with the exception of the tendons, which in most cases divide, a branch extending to each digit.
The Biceps Femoris and Vastus Externus are larger, also the Faicia Lata, which extends lower (Plate xiii).
The Semitendinosus and the Semimembranosus arise on the Iscbium only, and are quite small and unimportant. Their absence explains the principal cause of the difference in the appearance of the hind-quarters of these two animals.
It should be realised that the entire system of the cow is devoted to the production of milk, and that the formation of flesh interferes with this function, hence the prominence of such points as the Ilium and Iscbium, Scapula, Ribs, etc., etc. In bullocks, these points are not so prominent owing to the greater amount of flesh carried, the ideal animal from the butchers' and breeders' point of view being that with a back as straight and as broad as a billiard table.
There does not appear to be any laws governing the colour patches of cattle in a wild state, all being whole coloured ; neither dots the hair take any distinct changes of direction, sufficient, that is, to affect the artist, the only obvious point being the star upon the forehead.
SURFACE MUSCLES OF A COW
For characterisation purposes, special attention should be paid to the heavy wrinkling of the loose skin upon jaw, at the elbows, and upon the neck, especially with any side
ways mwovements ; similar actions in the horse showing but little wrinkling.