WE know on indisputable authority that Britain, as well as the greater part of Europe, in early days was covered with dense forests ; it is also granted that only a few of the trees common with us now are indigenous. Most writers agree that Scotland was probably densely wooded, chiefly with Scots Pine, Birch, and Rowan : that great forests were formed of Oak, Beech, and Pine, and that the Ash, Aspen, Alder, Wych Elm, Oak, Yew, Willow, and Hawthorn were native trees of Britain. Nisbet has collected a fund of information concerning the distribution of the forests of Britain, and gives reasons for assuming that certain trees are indigenous while there are records of the introduction of many. London's Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, 1838, is a source of early information on the subject, while Manwood's History of Forest Laws, Holinshed's Description of Britaine, Evelyn's Sylva, or a Discourse on Forest Trees, are freely quoted by some writers, as well as references to the writings of Julius Caesar and Pliny the Latin naturalist. The Rev. C. A. Johns in his Forest Trees of Britain, and Edward Step in Wayside and Woodland Trees, refer to other writers, amongst whom were H. C. Watson, Selby, Gilpin (Forest Scenery, 1834), Schonberg, and others. It is sufficient if we compile a table on the authority of Step and Nisbet (p. 320).
THE POPULAR NAMES OF SOME TREES
Scots Elm... (A) also called Wych Elm, Mountain Elm.
Hornbeam... (B) aka Aller and Howler.
Birch... (C) aka Birk.
Lime... (D) aka Linden.
Sallow... (E) aka Saugh and Goat Willow.
Evergreen Oak... (F) aka Holm Oak, Holly Oak, and Ilex.
W. Poplar... (G) aka Abele
Mountain Ash... (H) aka owan.
Hawthorn... (I) aka May-bush, May-tree, Whitethorn, Quickthorn, Quick, formerly called Haythorn.
Holly... (J) aka Hollen and Holm.
Scots Pine... (K) aka (erroneously) Scots Fir.
Sycamore... (L) aka (erroneously in the North Plane).
Acacia... (M) (The popular name for Rohinea, also called Locust).
Spanish Chestnut... (N) also called Sweet or eating Chestnut.
Elder... (0) aka Eller. Pore-tree, Buttery.
TREES INTRODUCED INTO GREAT BRITAIN
The above lists are compiled from Nisbet (British Forest Trees), with the exception of those names placed in brackets. The authority for these is Edward Step.
* See Wayside and Woodland Trees, E. Step, p. 95.
+ See Arboretum. et Frutieetum Britannieam, Loudon, 1838, vol. i, p. 15
DISTRIBUTION OF TREES IN EUROPE
Huge tracts of Europe are covered by forests, as will be seen by these figures :
Percentage of Land under Forest.--Bosnia and Herzegovina, 53 per cent. ; Bulgaria, 45 per cent. ; Sweden, 44 ; Russia, 40 ; Austria- Hungary and Luxembourg, 30 ; Germany, 26 ; Norway, 21 ; (Great Britain and Ireland, 34 per cent. !) ; other• countries, under 20 per cent. (Harmsworth Encyclopcedia). The extent of these forests may be better appreciated by saying that in Great Britain there are roughly three million acres of woodland, and in Austria and Hungary, over forty-six millions of acres.
The tables and information following give a general idea of the distribution of European trees. The table on p. 322 shows the highest altitudes at which they are commonly found. The situations (whether on wet or dry land, on mountains or in valleys, &c.) that are favourable to each species (see table below) should, of course, be taken into consideration. The list following on pp. 323-5 gives the general habits.
(TREES THAT GROW ON SOILS THAT ARE)
(TABLE SHOWING THE HIGHEST ALTITUDES AT WHICH VARIOUS SPECIES OF TREES ARE FOUND IN EUROPE. THE FIGURES IN THE TABLE REPRESENT FEET)
DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHIEF TREES IN EUROPE
Map of Europe
Alder.--" The Alder is found in moist situations throughout nearly the whole of Europe from Asia Minor and the Caucasus up to the 62° of latitude on the average ; . . . on fen soil in the Baltic provinces of Northern Germany it is often found in pure forests of scores of square miles in extent, and at other times in extensive mixed forests along with Birch, Aspen, Ash, &c.
Ash.--" The Ash is to be found over nearly the whole of Europe and the Caucasus, southwards from 63° 41' in Norway, 62° in Sweden, and 60° in Finland."
Aspen (and Poplars).--" Is found over the greater part of Europe. On the low tracts south of the Baltic it covers large forest areas with the Lime as its chief associate."
Beech.--" Throughout the western, the central, and most of the southern portion of Europe, also in the Caucasus. Its north-eastern limit is in Scotland, lat. 56°-57°, in Scandinavia, 612. on the western, and 57° on the eastern side, 541° on the East Prussian sea coast, thence across Eastern Poland, Bessarabia, and the Crimea, towards the Caucasus. It is essentially a tree belonging to the hilly and the lower mountainous tracts of Central and South Germany, and North-Western Austria, but it also forms pure forests on the plains within the Baltic region, in Upper Silesia, and in that portion of Alsace drained by the Rhine."
Birch.--" The southern limit of the Birch extends from North-west Spain, across the Pyrenees and along the southern slopes of the Alps, to Croatia, Servia, and Thrace." In the north it stretches across Scandinavia, Russia, and Siberia.
Buckthorn (Cartharticus).--" Europe, Russian Asia. Not Arctic." (Bentham and Hooker.)
Horse Chestnut.--"Indigenous to the mountains of Northern Greece, Thessaly, and Epirus--and eastwards to Persia, Afghanistan, and Upper India. It was introduced into Italy 1569, and Austria 1576, and into Trance 1613, and England 629 (according to Hess)."
Spanish Chestnut.--" Throughout the whole of Southern Europe. It is found as a forest tree in the outlying ranges of Southern Switzerland and France, and forms forests of considerable extent and importance throughout Spain, Austria, Italy, and Greece."
Hornbeam.--" Indigenous from the south-west of France eastwards across Central and Eastern Europe to Persia, northwards to England and Ireland (but not Scotland) and the southern portion of Sweden, and southwards to Lower Italy and Greece."
Larch.--" Is indigenous to the Alps and Carpathians, the lower portion of the Silesian and Moravian mountain ranges, and the southern edge of the woodland area of Bohemia and Moravia ; outside of these limits its growth is due to artificial measures."
Lime.--" The small-leaved Lime extends from Central and Northern Russia, where it forms forests westwards towards the north of Spain, northwards to Finland and Scandinavia, southwards to Southern Italy, and eastwards to Western Siberia. The larger-leaved species is indigenous throughout Southern Europe up to Central Germany, and eastwards to the Caucasus."
Norway Maple.--" Extends from 61°-62° in Scandinavia throughout Central Europe eastwards to the Caucasus, Armenia, and Northern Persia, and southwards to the Balkan Peninsula, Dalmatia, Central Italy, the Cevennes, and the Central Pyrenees."
Elm.--" Throughout the greater part of Europe, Algiers, Asia Minor, and Siberia as far as the drainage of the Amur, but is characteristic rather of Southern than of Northern Europe."
Oak.--" The English Oak is found over the greatest portion of Europe, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus, its northern limit being about 58° in Scotland, 61°-63° in Scandinavia, 571° in Russia, thence eastwards to the Ural ; its southern limit through Spain, Sicily, and Greece is not fixed."
Pines (Black, Austrian, or Corsican Pine).--" Extends from Spain across Southern Europe to Asia Minor, and in the specially recognised former variety (Austrian) forms extensive pine forests in Lower Austria, and south-east towards Bosnia and Herzegovina."
Maritime Pine (including Pinaster).--" Is cultivated at Bordeaux and along the shores of the Bay of Biscay."
Cembran Pine.--" On Alps and Carpathians and in Russia and Siberia."
Mountain Pine.--"Native of mountains of Central and Southern Europe."
Scots Pine.--" Nearly all Europe, greater part of Northern Asia from 71° N. latitude in Scandinavia, south to the Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees. Covers more than 81 per cent. of the wooded area of the great North German plain, and forms forests of enormous extent in Russia."
Silver Fir.--" Central and South Europe from Pyrenees eastwards to the Caucasus, northwards to the Vosges, Luxembourg, the southern edge of the Harz, Silesia, and Galicia, and southwards to Navarre, Corsica, Sicily, Macedonia, and Bithynia."
Spruce.--Extends from 69° N. Lat. southwards to the Alps, Cevennes, and Pyrenees. " It forms extensive forests in Scandinavia, Finland, Lapland, and Russia. In Germany and Switzerland the Spruce is the principal forest tree on all mountain ranges and hilly tracts."
Rowan (Mountain Ash).--" Is found throughout nearly the whole of Europe and of Northern Asia."
White Alder.--" Is distributed throughout Central and Northern Europe, and in the greater portion of Western and Northern Asia."
Willows.--" Have a wide distribution throughout Europe and Asia."
Yew.--" Indigenous throughout the whole of Central and Northern Europe and Asia but occurring most frequently in Southern France, Italy, and Algiers."
NOTE.--The descriptions in inverted commas are extracts from British Forest Trees by John Nisbet (Macmillan, 1893), a book crowded with information about trees from the forester's point of view. The map is more or less a rough copy from the Ilarmsworth Encyclopedia.
Fully illus. details= a volume in which the plates are confined to figures of leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, &c., and do not show general habit of growth.
n.s.d.= natural-size diagrams.
g.h.= general habit of growth.
The date of publication is some guide to the style of illustration that may be expected.
Many books under heading GENERAL contain interesting, but only incidental, references to flora, unless otherwise stated.
The term " scenery, &c.," is used in a general sense to indicate that the book is illustrated with views of characteristic scenery, architecture native life, and so forth.
Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicuin, Loudon. 1838. (8 vols.) English text. Descriptive ; historical. Includes 4 vols. of plates of a very conventional type.
Encyclopcedia of Trees and Shrubs of Great Britain, Loudon. 1842. Diagrams in text.
A History of British Forest Trees, P. J. Selby. 1842. " Indigenous and Introduced." Small steel engravings, g.h.
Trees and Shrubs of the British Isles, Cooper and Westell. 1909. Fully illus. details (n.s.d.).
The Trees of Great Britain and Ireland, Elwes and Henry. Issue of parts just completed. 6 vols. letterpress, 6 vols. photogravures. The plates are magnificent. N.B.--A large number of foreign trees are shown in their natural surroundings. This book is the latest and best of its kind.
Handbook of the British Flora, Bentham and Hooker.
Structural Botany, Asa Cray.
Elements of Botany, M. Adrien de Jussieu. Translated by Hewetson Wilson.
Elementary Botany, Joseph W. Oliver.
Structural Botany, Thome.
British Trees, R. Vicat Cole. (2 vols., royal 4to.) Trees and all their
parts described. Illus. with 500 drawings of whole trees and details. How to Know the Trees, H. Irving. 1911. Descriptive text. Illus.
with good photos. (g.h.), and details.
Woodland Heaths and Hedges, W. S. Coleman. Details only (woodcuts).
Our Woodland Trees, Francis S. Heath. Coloured reproductions of leaves only.
British Forest Trees, John Nisbet. Not illus. Mainly forestry. Gives details of distribution and management of trees.
Flowering Plants of Great Britain, Anne Pratt. Coloured illus. of
flowers and fruits, arranged under the orders of the genera.
Trees : A Handbook of Forest Botany for the Woodlands and the Laboratory, H. Marshall Ward. 1909. (5 vols.) Cambridge Biological
Series. Illus., g.h. and details.
Familiar Trees, G. S. Boulger. 1907. (3 vols.) Good photos. and coloured plates (g.h.).
Wayside and Woodland Trees, Edward Step. 1904. A pocket guide. Good photos. (g.h.).
The Forest Trees of Britain, Rev. C. A. Johns. 1849. (2 vols.) Anecdotal. Conventional engravings (g.h.).
Trees and Their Life Histories, Percy Groom. 1907. 517 very fine photos. (g.h. and n.s.d.).
Trees in Landscape, E. Kennion. 1815. An early specimen of " Artists' Handbook." 50 engravings (about 52" x 8") of a very conventional nature.
Trees, Foreign and Indigenous, H. W. Burgess. 1827. Descriptive and anecdotal text. 54 lithos. (about 12" x 16") of trees in association with picturesque scenery.
,Sylva Britannica ; or, Portraits of Forest Trees Distinguished for their Antiquity, Magnitude, or Beauty, J. G. Strutt. 1822. English Anecdotal text. 46 etchings (about 12" x 15").
Sylva Britannica. A supplement to the above. 1830. 50 small etchings.
The Forests of England, and the Management of Them in Bygone Times, J. C. Brown. 1880. Descriptive ; technical. Not illus.
The Yew-Trees of Great Britain and Ireland, John Lowe. 1897. Descriptive and anecdotal text. Good photos. (g.h.) and historical plates.
The New Forest : Its History and Scenery, J. R. Wise. 1863. Anecdotal. Many vignettes in text, and some full plates.
The New Forestry : The Continental System adapted to British Wood?
lands, J. Simpson. 1000. Technical. 8 photos. of woods.
On Buds and Stipules, Sir John Lubbock.
Flowers, Fruits, and Leaves, Sir John Lubbock.
On Seedlings, Sir John Lubbock.
Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs grown in Arboretum, Kew Gardens.
Fremdlandische Wald- und Parkbaume far Europa, Heinrich Mayr. 1006. Good photos. (g.h.).
Die Baume und Straucher des TValdes, Hempel and Wilhelm. 1889-99.
Text figures (g.h.), and details ; also fine coloured plates (n.s.d.).
Flora Forestal Espanola, D. M. Laguna. 1883-90. Accompanied by
folio Atlas of excellent coloured plates (n.s.d.).
Forests and Forestry of Finland, J. C. Brown. 1882. Technical manual. Not illus.
Forests and Forestry of Northern Russia, J. C. Brown. 1880. Technical manual. Not illus.
Rambles on the Riviera, E. Strasburger. 1906. Popular descriptive text. No useful plates.
The Parks, Promenades, and Gardens of Paris, W. Robinson. 1869. Many various wood engravings.
The Land of the Midnight Sun : Summer and TVinter Journeys through Sweden, Norway, Lapland, and Northern Finland, P. B. du Chaillu. 1881. Slight ref. to flora. Wood engravings of general scenery.
French Forest Ordinance of 1669, J. C. Brown. 1880. Technical ; historical. Not illus.
NORTH AMERICA AND CANADA
Manual of the Trees of North America, C. S. Sargent. 1905. Illus., details in text.
North American Trees, N. L. Britton. 1908. " Descriptions and Illustrations of Trees growing Independently of Cultivation in N.A., North of Mexico, and the West Indies." Numerous photos. (g.h.) and diagrams.
Handbook of the Trees of the Northern States and Canada, Hough. 1907. " Photo.-descriptive." Good photos. of trunks, leaves, and fruits, &c., but not g.h.
The Sylva of North America (12 folios), C. S. Sargent. 1898. Fully illus. details (n.s.d.).
Flora Boreali-Americana' (2 vols.), W. S. Hooker. 1840. Fully illus. details (n.s.d.).
Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts (2 vols.), G. B. Emerson. 1887.
Many excellent engravings of trees in natural surroundings.
Minnesota Plant Life, C. MacMillan. 1899. Popularly written. Many good photos. (g.h.).
Trees of California, W. L. Jepson. 1909. Good photos. (g.h.) and line drawings.
Botany of Mexican Boundary. Government Survey. 1859. Fully illus. details (n.s.d.).
Botany Railroad Reports : Mississippi to Pacific. 1855-60. Contains a number of lithographs (g.h.) of trees.
Plant Life of Maryland. Report. 1910. Many good photos. of trees and scenery.
Forest Life in Acadie, Capt. C. Hardy. 1869. Sketches of sport and
nat. hist. in Lower Provinces of Canada. Engravings of scenery, &c. Field and Forest Rambles in Eastern Canada, A. L. Adams. 1873.
No useful illus.
Alaska, Burroughs, Muir, Grinnell, &c. 1902. (2 vols.) Many good photos. and some wa'er-colours of scenery.
The Mountains of California, J. Muir. 1894. Descriptive text ; a
large section on the " Forests." Photos. and steel engs. of scenery. Mexico as I Saw It, Mrs. A. Twcedie. Descriptive travel. Many
photos. of scenery, &c.
Through Southern Mexico : The Travels of a Naturalist, H. Gadow. 1908. Good photos. of scenery.
Canadian Scenery Illustrated, N. P. Willis. 1842. (2 vols.) A large number of engravings by Bartlett, conventional and somewhat inaccurate.
Flora Brasiliensis. (15 folio vols.) 1840-1906. Latin text. Fully illus. details (n.s.d.). Authors--specialists responsible for their own particular group of plants. Edited by C. F. P. von Martin and (afterwards) by E. C. Eichler and J. Urban.
Flora: Peruvianw, et Chilensis Prodromus, Ruiz and Pavon. (5 folio vols.) Spanish text. Fully illus. details (n.s.d.).
Notes of a Naturalist in South America, J. Ball. 1887. Descriptive travel. Not illus.
The Great Mountains and Forests of South America, P. Fountain. 1902. Descriptive travel. A few plates of scenery.
Rough Notes of a Journey through the Wilderness, from Trinidad to Par, Brazil, H. A. Wickham. 1872. Drawings of scenery, &c., by the author.
In the Guiana Forests : Studies of Nature in Relation to the Struggle for Life, J. Rodney. 1894. 16 photos.
A Naturalist in the Guianas, E. Andre. 1904. Narrative travel. Photos. of native life chiefly.
The Naturalist on the Amazons, H. W. Bates. 1879. Small various steel engravings.
Notes of a Botanist in the Amazons and Andes, R. Spruce. Ed. by A. R. Wallace. 1908. Large sections on Forests." Seine photos., trees, g.h. and various.
The British Wes' Indies, A. E. Aspinall. 1912. General descriptive, good photos. of scenery, &c.
At Last, Rev. C. Kingsley. 1872. Descriptive travel. Various engravings of scenery, trees, fruits, &c.
Bermuda Islands, A. E. Verrill. 1902. Narrative ; scientific. Photos. and steel engravings of scenery.
The Natural History of Jamaica, H. Sloane. 1707. A book chiefly of antiquarian interest. A section on " Flora." Fully illus. details (n.s.d.).
Through Jamaica with a Kodak, A. Leader. 1907. General descriptive. Many small photos. of scenery, &c.
Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia, Sven Hedin. 1907 (5 tomes.) Narrative. Many fine photos., scenery, &c., diagrams, maps.
Through Asia, S. Hedin. 1898. (2 vols.) Descriptive travel. Nearly
300 photos. and drawings of scenery, &c., some in colours.
Central Asia and Thibet : Towards the Holy City of Lassa, S. He in.
1903. (2 vols.) Descriptive travel. 420 photos. and drawings of
scenery, &c., some in colours.
Adventures in Thibet, S. Hedin. 1904. Narrative travel. Numerous photos. of scenery, &c.
Expedition for the Survey of the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris, Lieut.-Col.
Chesney. 1850. Numerous good tinted lithos. of scenery, &c.
Indian Trees, D. Brandis. 1906. Small plates of details in text.
Jungle Life in India, V. Ball. 1880. Diary of travel. A few illus. of scenery.
The Forests of Upper India, and their Inhabitant, T. W. Webber. 1902. Descriptive narrative. Not illus.
Himalayan Journals, J. D. Hooker. 1854. (2 vols.) Scientific travel. Lithos. and wood engravings of scenery.
Trans-Himalaya, Sven Hedin. 1909. (2 vols.) Narrative travel. 388 photos. and sketches of scenery, &c.
India and Its Native Princes, L. Rousselet. 1876. Narrative travel.
A few excellent wood engravings of scenery, many of architecture. Burma, M. and B. Ferrars. 1901. General descriptive. Many good
photos. of scenery, &e.
Kashmir, P. Pirie. 1909. Descriptive travel. Many coloured plates and drawings of scenery, &e.
Ceylon : Natural Resources, Indigenous Productions, the., J. W. Bennett 1843. A few illus., coloured, n.s.d.
Eight Years in Ceylon, Sir S. Baker. 1874. Treats of jungle, &c. No useful illus.
Forestiêre de la Cochinchine, L. Pierre. 1838-88. (5 folios.) French text. Litho. plates, n.s.d.
Forest Flora of Japan, C. S. Sargent. 1894. Good photos. of trees in natural surroundings.
Japan : Travels and Researches, J. J. Rein. 1884. A section on " Flora." A few general photos.
Japan : A Record in Colour, M. Mempes. 1901. Descriptive travel. Many sketches of native life, scenery, &c.
Palestine : Physical History, J. Kitto. 1841. Small illus. in text. The Holy Land, Robert Hitchens. 1910. Descriptive ; historical. Coloured illus. and photos. of scenery, &c.
The Natural History of the Bible, H. B. Tristram. 1880. A few small illus. in text.
Australian Plants, W. R. Guilfoyle. 1911. Many photos. of tree f orms.
The Forest Flora of New South Wales, J. H. Maiden. (Still being issued
in parts.) Good photos. (g.h.) and scenery, and details (n.s.d.).
South Australia. Ed. by W. Harcus. 1876. A large section on
44 Flora." No useful illus.
The Forest Flora of New Zealand, T. Kirk. 1889. (n.s.d.)
Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific, H. B. Guppy. 1906. Plant- dispersal. Not illus.
The Indigenous Plants of the Hawaiian Islands, J. F. Rock. 1913. Fully illus., fine photos. (g.h., n.s.d.), &c.
Flora Australiensis, Bentham and Mueller. 1863-78.
Sunny Australia, A. Marshall. 1911. Descriptive. A section on " Timber." Good photos. of scenery.
In the Australian Bush, and on the Coast of the Coral Sea, R. Semon. 1899. Observations of a naturalist. Descriptive. Various general illus.
Through South Westland : A Journey to the Haast and Mount Aspiring, A. M. Moreland. 1911. Light narrative travel in New Zealand. Many photos. of scenery.
A Naturalist in Tasmania, G. Smith. 1909. Good photos., forest and other scenery.
Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia, G. Bennett. 1890. Various coloured plates of trees, plants, &c.
The Savage South Seas. Painted by N. H. Hardy. Described by E. W. Elkington. 1907. 68 reproductions from water-colours of scenery and native life.
Life in the Forests of the Far East, S. St. John. 1843. (2 vols.) Anecdotal travel. Tinted lithos. of scenery, &c.
Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo, 0. Beccari. Good photos., gene al scenery ; diagrams, maps.
Through New Guinea and other Cannibal Countries, Capt. Webster. 1898. Many good photos., general scenery, &c.
Across Papua, Col. Kenneth Mackay. 1909. Narrative travel. Good photos. of scenery, &c.
A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago, H. 0. Forbes.
1885. Descrip ice travel. Various illus. and diagrams in text.
In Strange South Seas, B. Grimshaw. 1907. Narrative ; anecdotal.
Good photos. of scenery, &c.
My Tropic Isle, E. J. Bonfield. 1911. Narrative of a South Sea naturalist. Many good photos. of scenery, trees (g.h.), &c.
The Forests and Forest Fauna of Cape Colony, T. R. Sim. 1907. 158 n.s.d.
Morocco and the Great Atlas, Hooker and Ball. 1878. Descriptive
travel. Appendices D, E, F, G, " Flora." No useful illus.
Liberia, Sir H. Johnston, K.C.M.G. (2 vols.) 1906. A section on " Flora " by Dr. Otto Stapf, fully illus. with photos. (g.h.) and diagrams (n.s.d.). There are also many photos. of scenery.
A Naturalist in Mid-Africa, G. F. Scott-Elliot. 1896. Good photos. of scenery.
To the Mountains of the Moon, J. E. S. Moore. 1901. An account of the modern aspect of Central Africa. Good photos. and sketches of scenery.
Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa, H. Barth. 1858. (5 vols.) Many good tinted lithos. of scenery.
Across Africa, V. L. Cameron. 1877. (2 vols.) Desscrip live travel. Many engravings of scenery.
In Darkest Africa, H. M. Stanley. 1890. (2 vols.) Descriptive travel. Sundry engravings of scenery.
Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, P. B. du Chaillu. 1861. Slight reference to flora. No useful illus.
Sahara and Sudan, G. Nachtigal. 1879. German text. Scientific
descriptive travel. A few plates of scenery and trees (g.h.).
The Forester, J. Nisbet. 1905. (2 vols.) Bot., industrial, and commercial. Numerous various photos., diagrams, &c.
Timber : A Comprehensive Study of Wood in all its Aspects, P. Charpientier. 1912. Commercial and botanical. A few illus. in text (g.h.), and some details.
Manual of Forestry, S. W. Schlich. (5 vols.) Scientific and technical. Numerous photos. (g.h.), &c.
Principal Species of -Wood : Their Characteristic Properties, Snow. 1903. Good photos. (g.h.).
Natural History of Plants, Kerner and Oliver. 1895. Many photos. of trees and plants in natural surroundings.
Botany of To-day, G. E. Scott-Elliot. 1910. Section on " Forestry." General photos.
Plant-Geography upon a Physiological Basis, Dr. A. F. W. Sehimper.
1903. Eng. trans. Popular botanical. Characteristic photos. of
vegetation in all parts of the world (g.h.), forests, &c., diagrams,
details, &c. The most useful and comprehensive work of its kind.
The Elements of Picturesque Scenery, H. Twining. 1853. (2 vols.) In the nature of an " artists' handbook." Section descriptive of trees. A few wood engravings and lithos.
The Wonders of the World. Various writers. 1913. Articles on curious and particular trees. Photos.
The Forest. G. D. Harding.
Manual of Coniferce, J. Veitch. 1900. Photos. (g.h.).
Historic Naturalis Palmarum, C. F. P. de Martino. 1823-50. Latin text. (Folio.) Accompanied by folio " Atlas " of coloured plates (g.h.) and details.
The Myoporinous Plants of Australia, Baron F. von Mueller, K.C.M.G. 1886. Vol. I. Descriptions. Vol. II. Atlas (n.s.d.).
The Yew-Trees of Great Britain and Ireland. (See British : Special.) Popular History of the Palms, and Their Allies, B. Seemann. 1856. Numerous tinted lithos. (g.h.).
Palms of the Amazon, and Their Uses, A. R. Wallace. 1853. Popular treatise. Line engravings (g.h.).
The Larch, C. Y. Michie. 1885. Culture and management. 4 plates (g. h. ).
Genera Plantarum, Bentham and Hooker.
INDEX TO THE PICTURES REPRODUCED
IN THIS VOLUME
Bartolommeo (Fra). Part of picture, " Virgin and Child "... Illus. 1
Both (Jan). " Landscape with the Judgment of Paris "... Plate xi
Botticelli. Part of picture, " L'Annunziazione "... Illus. 2
Bourdon (Sebastian). "Return of the Ark from Captivity "... Plate x
Claude. (1) " Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca "... Plate vi
(2) " Study of Tree Trunks "... Illus. 4
(3) " Study of Trees with Fishermen "... Illus. 5
Clausen (G.), R.A. "The Road "... Plate xxxii
Colo Rex Vicat). (1) " The Hill Farm "... Plate xxxvi
(2) " Study in Oils of Dappled Sunlight "... Plate xli
(3) "Trees against the Sun "... plate xlviii
Cole (Vicat), R.A.
(1) " A Pause in the Storm at Sunset "... Plate xxix
(2) " Pencil Study of Trees "... Illus. 7
(3) " Study in Oils of Sunlight and Shade "... Plate xl
(4) " Study in Oils of Trees against a Storm Cloud "... Plate xlvii
Constable. "The Valley Farm "... Plate xxi
Corot. (1) " Souvenir de Morte-Fontaine "... Plate 3 xxiii
(2) " Macbeth and the Witches " . Illus. 12
Credi. Part of picture, " The Virgin adoring the Infant Christ "... Illus. 3
Creswick. " Pathway to the Church "... Plate xxviii
Crome. " The Poringland Oak "... Plate xix
Diaz. " La Beigneuse "... Plate xxiv
Dupre. " Crossing the Bridge "... Plate xxvii
East (Sir A.), R.A. " Under the Wold "... plate xxxi
Fisher (Mark), A.R.A. " The Pool in the Wood "... Plate xxxv
Gainsborough. (1) " Wood Scene, Village of Cornard, Suffolk "... Plate xvii
(2) "The Market Cart"... Plate xviii
Giorgione. " Judgment of Solomon "... Plate iii
Guercino. A drawing in the National Gallery... Plate v
Hall (Oliver), R.E. " Sycamore Trees "... a Lithograph Plate xxxix
Hobbema. " The Avenue, Middelharnis, Holland "... Plate xiii
Hughes-Stanton, A.R.A. " Fort -St. Andre, Villeneuve, Les Avignons "... Plate xxxviii
Lawson (Cecil). " Marshlands "... Illus. 6
Linnell. " The Wood-cutters "... Plate xxii
Lorraine. (See Claude)
Neer (Van der). "A River Scene : Afternoon"... Plate xii
North (J. W.), R.A. (1) "The Winter Sun "... Plate xxx
(2) "Pen Study of Poplars"... Illus. 8
Pater. " Fête in a Park "... Plate xv
Poussin (Gaspard). "Abraham and Isaac "... Plate vii
Pynacker. "Landscape with Animals "... Plate xiv
Rembrandt (School of). " Tobit and the Angel "... Plate viii
Rosa (Salvatore). " Tobit and the Angel"... Plate ix
Rousseau. " A Glade in the Forest of Fontainebleau "... Plate xxvii
Rubens. "Landscape " in the National Gallery... Plate iv
Sellaio. Part of the Picture, " Venus reclining with Cupids "... Illus. 3
Stokes (Adrian), A.R.A. " Dawn in Winter "... Plato xlii
Stott (E.), A.R.A. " A Summer Idyll "... Plate xlii
Troyon. " Watering Cattle "... Plate xxv
Turner (J. M. W.), R.A. (1) " The Bay of Baim "... Plate xx
(2) "Blair Athol" (Liber Studiorum)... Plate ii
Waterlow (Sir E. A.), R.A. "In the Mellow Autumn Light"... Plato xxxiii
Watteau. " Les Champs Elysees "... Plate xv
Wilson (Richard), R.A. "Landscape with Venus and Adonis"... Plate xvi