The knee must be thought of as a square with sides beveled forward, slightly hollowed at the back, and carrying in front the knee cap; like the stopper of an ink well.
A powerful ligament connects the cap with the high ridge of the shin bone below, the two sliding
together on the end of the thigh bone, which is therefore exposed in flexion. The cap is always at
the apex of the angle made by thigh and leg.
From the knee cap at the top rise the three muscles already described, the rectus by a tendon narrowing upward; the vastus externus by a tendon angling slightly out; the vastus internus bulging prominently from the corner of the cap.
When the knee is straight, its bursa, or water mattress, forms a bulge on either side in the corner between the cap and its tendon, exactly opposite the joint itself; the knee cap being always above the level of the joint.
The back, when bent, is hollowed out by the ham-string tendons on either side; when straight, the bone becomes prominent between them, making, with these tendons, three knobs.
The inside of the knee is larger; the knee as a whole is bent convex toward its fellow. The hip socket, the knee and the ankle are all in line; but the shaft of the thigh bone is carried some distance out by a long neck, so that the thigh is set at an angle with the leg.
Knee, outer view
1 Pad or sack.
2 Common tendon.
3 Patella or knee-pan.
4 Ligament of the patella.
Knee, inner view
As the little finger side is the heel side of the hand, so the outside of the foot is the heel side. It is flat upon the ground, continuous with the heel; it is lower than the inside -- even the outer ankle bone is lower -- and it is shorter.
The inside, as though raised by the greater power of the great toe and the tendons of all the toes, is higher. To the front of the ankle is the knob that corresponds with the base of the thumb. Opposite it, on the outside, is a similar knob corresponding with the base of the little finger.
In the foot this symmetry adapted to the function of weight-bearing, has developed into a wonderful series of arches. The five arches of the foot converge on the heel; the toes being flying buttresses to them. The balls of the foot form a transverse arch. The inner arches of the foot are successively higher, forming half of a transverse arch whose completion is in the opposite foot. Opening gradually toward the ankle, this arching movement finally culminates in the two columns of the leg and the arch between; wherefore the leg is placed somewhat to the inside of the central line
of the foot.
In all positions, the foot tends to keep itself flat with the ground; the arches of the foot changing accordingly. In Action, the foot comes almost into straight line with the leg, but when settling upon the ground, the outer or heel side strikes first and the whole foot settles toward the inside.
The Foot, outer view : Interlocking of the Ankle with the Foot
The Foot, inner view
Their Pads and Wedging
ORIGIN AND COMMON MEANING OF ANATOMICAL WORDS
Drawing away (from median line)
Drawing toward (median line)
Turning face up
Turning face down
Brief, or short
On inner side
Vast, or large
From paries, wall
From ob, over against, so back of head and caput, head;
From mala, cheek
- Above, upper
- Below, lower
Key, collar bone
Spade; shoulder blades
Bone of upper arm
Spoke (of wheel)
From carpus, wrist
Like a table — two sides parallel, two not
Beyond the wrist
Ranks of soldiers
Bone without a name
Sacred (used in oracles)
Cuckoo (beak of)
From calx, heel
Beyond the instep
Pertaining to temporal bone
Attaching to sternum, clavicle and masmastoid bones
Shield (and eidos, like); so shield-like. (So all words ending in -oid.)
Like Greek letter delta, triangular (equilateral)
Pertaining to breast
Straight muscle of abdomen
Pertaining to arm
(Adjective) in front
From coracoid (beak-like) process scapula to brachium, or arm
Tightener, or holder
Straight muscle of the femur
Great muscle outside
Great muscle inside
Drawing away (from median line)
Half membranous (broad, flat tendon)
Of the sole of the foot (compare palmaris
of the hand)
Sole fish, or flounder
The tendon by which Achilles' mother
held in dipping him into the River Styx
to make him invulnerable