The upper part of the eye socket or orbit is marked by the brow, whose bristles are so placed as to divert moisture and dirt outward away from the lid and eye.
Below it on the lid are three planes, wedging into each other at different angles. The first is from the bridge of the nose to the eye. The second is from the brow to the cheek bone; which is again divided into two smaller planes, one sloping toward the root of the nose, the other directed toward and joining with the cheek bone.
The lower lid is quite stable. It is the upper lid that moves. When the eye is closed, its curtain is drawn smooth; when opened, its lower part follows the curve of the eyeball straight back, folding in beneath the upper part as it does so, and leaving a wrinkle to mark the fold.
The lower lid may be wrinkled and slightly lifted inward, bulging below the inner end of the lid.
The transparent cornea or "apple" of the eye is raised perceptibly, and is always curtained by the upper lid, in part, so that it always makes a slight bulge in the lid, whatever the position, and whether open or closed. The eyeball has about half a right angle of movement in two planes.
At the inner corner of the lids is a narrow pit (canthus), floored by a pinkish membrane, which projects some distance beyond the walls of the pit when the eye is turned far out. At the corners of the pit are the openings of the tear ducts, which drain off the excess of lacrymal (tear) fluid. There is a continuous light secretion of this fluid, which
is spread over the eyeball by the constant winking of the upper lid. The thin film of liquid thus kept there reflects light perfectly from its surface.
The lashes, projecting from the margin of the lids, serve both as curtains to shade and as delicate feelers to protect the eye.
The immovable masses of the forehead, nose and cheek bones form a strong setting for this most variant and expressive of the features.
In looking at any feature one naturally compares it with his concept of the average of such features, or with some mental standard or ideal.
The variations of such features will then fall into classes which represent the more usual variations thereof.
Eyebrows may be level or sloping; straight or arched; short or long; narrow or wide, thick, scanty or penciled.
Lids may be thick or thin, although the upper lid is always thicker along its margin, and always protrudes if the eye protrudes, and is raised over the cornea.
Eye sockets may be far apart or near together; long or short; bulging or shallow.
The opening between the lids may be triangular or round, a loop, or a button hole.
THE EYE SOCKET
Wedges, Planes and Their Angles
Angular Opening Between the Lids
The nose is made of a series of wedges based on its bony structure.
Where the bridge of the nose wedges in under the forehead, the two ridges of the glabella descend to form a wedge with apex at the bridge.
The bony part of the nose is a very clear wedge, its ridge only half the length of the nose, higher as it descends; its base somewhat longer, wider as it descends, making the second wedge.
Beyond the bony part, the nose narrows and the ridge sinks slightly toward the bulb, making a third wedge, base to base with the second.
The bulb rises as two sheets of cartilage from the middle of the upper lip (septum of the nose), expands into the bulbous tip, flows over the sides, and flares out to form the alae or wings of the nostrils.
This cartilaginous portion is quite movable. The wings are raised in laughter, dilated in heavy breathing, narrowed in distaste, and wings and tip are raised in scorn, wrinkling the skin over the nose.
Average variations in noses divide them into classes.
They may be small, large, or very large; concave or convex; humped, Roman or straight.
At the tips they may be elevated, horizontal, or depressed; flattened, tapering or twisted.
The wings may be delicate or puffy, round or flat, triangular, square or almond-shaped.
Cartilages of the Nose:
1 Upper lateral.
2 Lower lateral.
In animals, the external ear is a smooth cornucopia of cartilage, freely movable, ending in a point.
In man it is practically immobile, and its muscles, now mere elastic bands, serve only to draw it into wrinkles. These vary widely, but there are certain definite forms: an outer rim (helix) bearing the remains of the tip; an inner elevation (anti-helix), in front of which is the hollow of the ear (concha) with the opening of the canal, overhung in front by a flap (tragus) and behind and below by a smaller one (anti-tragus). To the whole is appended a lobe.
The ear is vertically in line with the back of the jaw, and lies horizontally between the lines of the brow and the base of the nose.
In it three planes are to be found, divided by lines radiating from the canal, up and back and down and back. The first line marks a depressed angle between its planes, the second a raised angle.
Average variations in ears present the following classes: large, medium or small; round, oval or triangular. The remains of the point of the ear may be marked or absent.
Cartilage of the Ear
The shape of the mouth and lips is controlled by the shape of the jaw. The more curved the jaw in front the more curved the lips; the more flat it is, the straighter the lips. A much bowed mouth does not occur on a jaw bone that is flat in front, nor a straight slit of a mouth on a curved set of upper teeth.
The curtainous portion of the mouth (from nose to margin of red lip) presents a central groove with pillars on either side, blending into two broad drooping wings, whose terminus is at the pillars of the mouth. The groove ends in a wedge entering the upper lip (red portion). This portion is set at an angle with the curtainous portion.
The upper and lower red lips, accurately adapted to each other when closed, are yet quite different in form; the upper being flat and angular, the lower rounded.
The upper red lip has a central wedge-shaped body, indented at the top by the wedge of the groove above, and two long slender wings disappearing under the pillars of the mouth.
The lower red lip has a central groove and two lateral lobes. It has three surfaces, the largest depressed in the middle, at the groove, and two smaller ones on each side, diminishing in thickness as they curve outward, not so long as the upper lip.
The base or curtainous portion of the lower lip sets at an angle with the red portion less than that in the upper lip. It slopes backward and ends at the cleft ot the chin. It has a small linear central ridge and two large lateral lobes, bounded by the pillars ot the mouth.
The oval cavity of the mouth is surrounded by a circular muscle (orbicularis oris) whose fibres, overlapping at the corners, raise the skin into the folds known as the pillars of the mouth.
Its outer margin is usually marked by a crease in the skin running from the wings of the nose out and down to varying distances, paralleling the pillars. Its lower end may blend into the cleft of the chin. From this muscle radiate various facial muscles of expression.
Average variations in lips present the following comparisons: thick or thin; prominent, protruding or receding; and each may be compared with the other in these respects: straight, curved or bowed, rosebud, pouting or compressed.
Below the cleft of the chin, the chin itself protrudes. Its breadth at the base is marked by two lines which, prolonged, would meet at the septum of the nose, making a triangle that wedges upward into the base of the lower lip. It is bordered on each side by two planes which reach to the angle of the jaw.
Variations in chins present the following comparisons: high or low; pointed or ball; flat, furrowed or dimpled; elongated, double, etc.