Of the same width as the end of the thigh bone is the head of the tibia, or shin bone. Immediately below the head the shaft narrows on both sides, but on the outside and a little to the rear is the head of the fibula (which corresponds with the ulna of the forearm) more than filling out the narrowing on that side.
The ridge of the shin bone descends straight down the front of the leg, a sharp edge toward the outside, a flat surface toward the inside, which at the ankle bends in to become the inner ankle bone.
The outer bone of the foreleg (fibula) soon overlaid by a gracefully bulging muscular mass, emerges again to become the outer ankle bone.
On the back of the leg are two muscles. Beneath is the low, flat and broad soleus (sole fish) muscle; on top of it is the double-bellied calf muscle (gastrocnemius, frog's belly), covering its upper half, but crossing the knee joint above and helping to make the two knobs there. These two muscles unite to form the tendon ot Achilles at the heel.
Bones of the Lower Limb:
Hip -- Pelvis.
Thigh -- Femur.
Leg -- Tibia and Fibula (outside).
Muscles of the Lower Limb, front view:
I Tensor of the fascia lata.
3 Rectus femoris.
4 Vastus externus.
5 Vastus internus.
6 Tibialis anticus.
7 Peroneus longus.
8 Extensor longus digitorum.
Tensor Vaginae Femoris (tensor fascite femoris) : From crest of ilium, front end, to fascia lata, or ilio-tibial band. Action: Tenses fascia and rotates inward thigh.
Sartorius: From spine to ilium in front to tibia inside. Action: Flexes, abducts and rotates inward thigh.
Rectus Femoris: From anterior inferior spine of ilium to common tendon of patella. Action: Extends leg.
Vastus Externus: From outer side of femur to common tendon of patella. Action: Extends and rotates outward leg.
Vastus Internus: From inner side of femur to common tendon ot patella. Action: Extends and rotates inward leg.
Muscles of the Lower Limb, back view:
1 Gluteus medius.
2 Gluteus maximus.
5 Biceps temoris.
Semi-tendinosis: From ischial tuberosity to tibia. Action: Flexes knee and rotates inward leg.
Semi-membranosus: From ischial tuberosity to tibia. Action: Flexes knee and rotates leg inward.
Biceps Femoris: Long head from ischial tuberosity; short head from femur, to head of fibula. Action: Flexes knee and rotates thigh outward.
Knee Joint, back view
Ham-Strings, Gastrocnemius and Popliteal Space
Muscles of the Lower Limb, outer view.
1 Gluteus maximus.
2 Gluteus medius.
3 Biceps temoris.
4 Vastus externus.
6 Peroneus longus.
7 Tibialis anticus.
Below the Knee
Gastrocnemius: From tuberosities of femur to tendon of Achilles. Action: Extends foot, raises body in walking.
Peroneus Longus: From head and upper part of fibula passes beneath foot from outside, to base of big toe. Action: Extends ankle and raises outer side of foot.
Tibialis Anticus: From upper and outer two-thirds of tibia to inner side of foot. Action: Flexes ankle and raises inner side of foot.
Muscles of the Lower Limb, inner view:
I Rectus femoris.
2 Vastus internus.
Below the Knee
Soleus: From vipper part of fibula and back of tibia to tendon of Achilles. Action: Extends foot and lifts body in walking.
Extensor Communis Digitorum (extensor longus digitorum pedis) : From tibia and front of fibula to second and third phalanges of toes. Action: Extends toes.