Light and Shade Art Book
VALUES AND THEIR TESTS
Definition. — Value means the relations of tones to each other, and concerns the quantity of light or dark they reflect without regard to color, so there may be many different colors of the same value. With different colors there is usually a difference in value, so that a light and shade drawing may generally be true to nature in values and yet suggest the different colors throughout the subject.
Value has to take into account not only different colors but different tones of the same color, and also variations in the effect of one tone or color which are produced by distance or by light and shade, and value is generally understood by artists to mean variations of light and dark produced by any cause whatever. All the variations of effect explained in Chap. I are differences in value, and the student will at once see that upon the values depends most of the merit of any black and white study.
Unit of value. — In a light and shade drawing black is usually taken as the unit for comparison, the strongest values being those which are nearest black, the lowest (lightest) values those which are farthest from black. In color work the unit for comparison is white, the strongest values are those which reflect the most light to the eye, and the lowest (darkest) values those which send the least light to the eye.
Truth of value. — The art student should be continually asking himself if his drawing is like nature, and his first problems should deal principally with comparisons of his work with nature; which he will generally be able to make, so as to discover any important differences. Here the question arises, " How far is it possible to imitate nature ? " The strongest light of the artist is given by white paint ; even the effect of sunlight upon pure white must be represented by means of white paint. Hence the bright lights of nature are often much brighter than those of a painting seen in the light of any common gallery or room. It is natural, then, to ask if it is possible in every case to produce a picture which is like nature. It is well to consider this point, although this question is more important to the artist than to the elementary student who works in a studio and does not have sunlight effects to represent.
The strongest lights of a landscape, whether in sunlight or in moonlight, are represented by the same white paint, with perhaps faint tints of warm and cool colors respectively added. Sunlight is many times brighter than moonlight ; and yet one picture suggests sunlight satisfactorily, and the other, moonlight. Neither picture represents nature, but simply suggests one of her effects. In each picture the artist's problem is very different from that of the student, who works indoors and can place his drawing beside the subject and study both at an equal distance and in the same light. In such a case, though the glitter lights of the subject may be lighter than those. of the drawing, there is not the great difference that exists between the high lights out of doors and the effect of white paint in a studio ; hence the art student is often able to make a drawing whose contrasts are as great as those of the subject in a studio. With color he can do this more frequently than with black and white. But when he attempts sunlight effects, it is impossible to obtain in any drawing lights equal in intensity to those of nature, With the same contrasts of black and white and color he is obliged to give the effect of moonlight and of light many times stronger.
Not reproduced, but suggested. — The artist is able to represent with the same pigments such very different effects, 'because he is not obliged to reproduce the actual colors or contrasts, but simply to suggest them. As shown in Chap. I, nature's effects are due to contrasts of masses of light and dark and color, and whenever these contrasts are suggested, the effect of the subject will be created. The masses are much more simple by moonlight than by sunlight, but either effect will be expressed by representing correctly the relations of the various masses of light and dark ; in other words, the problem is simply that of values. If the relation of any light or dark to every other in the moonlight subject is correctly given, the picture will create a satisfactory impression of moonlight, and in .the same way the effect of sunlight will be given by a picture which gives the relations between the different masses of the sunlit landscape.
High or low. — In the case of moonlight or that of sunlight, the picture may be in a high key or in a low key and still produce a satisfactory impression of the subject. Thus the same sunlight effect may be represented by two pictures, one very much darker throughout than the other ; or the same moonlight effect, by two pictures of which one throughout is very much lighter than the other. The relations of light to dark in each pair are, however, the same, and so they give the effect of sunlight or of moonlight, while their general effect is very different. It is in fact possible for a satisfactory impression of moonlight upon any subject to be given by a picture whose general effect is little, if any, darker than that of another canvas which gives a satisfactory impression of sunlight upon the same subject.
Whether the light upon any subject be strong or weak, it will produce masses of light and dark and gradations of tone ; and if the relations of these masses and tones are correctly represented, the effect of the subject will be expressed, whether the contrast between the different values is very strong or not. There are no more lights or no more shadows with a strong light than with a weak one, and there are as many gradations of light and shade with the former as with the latter; in fact, there is often less gradation with the strong light than with the weak. So it is simply a question of values, and the weakness of pigments in contrast with nature is a difficulty which has been greatly magnified. To produce a strong picture it is not necessary that there should be violent contrasts of light and dark, but simply that the relations of the principal masses be truly given ; and the student should apply himself to the study of values until able to see quickly and render truly the relations between all parts of a subject ; for until he can do this he cannot produce a picture which will give the effect of nature. He may make the most perfect studies of form, but if without values, they will be unatmospheric, unnatural, and unsatisfactory.
Must be studied. — The fallacy of the belief that all a student has to do is to learn to draw, and that values will come then as a matter of course, is proven by the work of many who are splendid draughtsmen, but who, not having studied values, never succeed in making drawings that are not almost without atmosphere and the sense of color.
No black in nature. — It is important that the student should understand that in nature he sees no pure black. Black is the absence of all light, and light is color. In a perfectly dark room not even the whitest non-luminous object can be seen. If a little light is allowed to enter the room, the lightest objects will be dimly seen, but they must appear of some color; and the darkest objects visible will not appear pure black, because they must send some light to the eye, and light is color. When there is very little light, however, there is so little color that it is often difficult to realize that we do not see black. The student will be assisted to realize how much light and color there is in nature if he looks outdoors from a room which receives light from one or two windows in one side of the room. If he stands at the opposite side and, blurring his vision, looks through a window (which thus serves as a frame for the landscape seen through it), he will be surprised to find that the light-colored window frame seems darker than the dark objects outdoors; and even if white, the frame in shadow will generally appear darker than the darkest objects outdoors, unless they are quite near the window.
If a piece of black velvet is held near the eye and wholly in the shadow of the hand, it will appear practically black, for it is so near the eye that the atmosphere does not change its color ; it receives no direct light, and reflects very little of the reflected light which strikes it. If the student will now compare the darks of the room with the black thus held in the hand, they will be found to be quite gray and luminous in contrast with the black. This is true of the strongest darks of groups, such as those of Figs. 14, 15, and i6; and even black objects or draperies in the room will seem much lighter than the black in the hand. This is in accordance with the law of aerial perspective, which causes the nearer of any two objects equally dark to appear the darker.
Little black in any drawing. — The student who works in color will do well to make the absence of black in nature the basis for a rule which forbids the use of pure black in any color study. But the student of light and shade works with mediums far less powerful than color, and it is often necessary or desirable for him to represent the strongest dark in his subject by the strongest dark to be obtained with the medium employed; for by so doing he is able to give more of the gradations in the mass of the light than can be given if the strongest dark of the group is represented by gray. And whenever the strongest . dark of any subject seems very dark in contrast with the light, and no detail is seen in it, the student should generally represent this dark by the strongest dark to be obtained with the medium used. But this accent or spot of black must be very small; for if any large part of the drawing is without the gradation seen in all parts of the subject, it will not be atmospheric, and therefore not natural. The student must have in any drawing one high light, that is, one light which is brighter than all others, and one dark which is darker than all other darks, but he must be particularly careful not to use pure black freely.
As already shown, a drawing may be upon a light key or upon a dark one. But the most truthful representation of the appearances due to daylight, either indoors or outdoors, will be given by one which at first glance gives the impression of light and color. Generally the student will find the lightest drawing which can be made to suggest the masses of light and dark, and the principal gradations in the mass of light will be most true to nature; for when it is seen from a short distance the detail is seen, and when seen from a long distance it gives the effect of light and nature, which cannot be produced by a drawing whose lights are so dark that at a distance the drawing seems largely or wholly dark.
Values may be changed. — The value by which any part of any subject shall be represented depends somewhat upon the extent and nature of the subject. Thus, suppose a group similar to that of Fig. i8 placed upon a table covered with black drapery, which hangs in folds to the floor, the group being lighted by a feeble light from behind or at the left of the spectator, and a window being situated some distance to the left of the group, through which a sunlit landscape is seen. If the room with its contents is to be represented, the mass of light will be the window. The group will seem composed of gray colors, and the strongest darks will be upon the black drapery. If simply the group is to be represented, the most truthful drawing will be that which gives the values seen when the group is compared with its surroundings. The most truthful representation of the landscape alone will be that which gives the impression of the brilliancy of light and color seen through the window. The student should aim to represent truly not only the relative values, but as far as possible the actual values seen in any subject, and in order to do this he should compare the values with pure black material which is held in the hand and shaded so as to appear black.
When the student can represent truly the actual values in any subject as far as this is possible, the values may be changed, just as the form and color may be changed, to more perfectly express the artist's sentiments. Thus the values of any subject such as the group alone may be changed so that the lights of the group are lighter than they seem when compared with the high lights seen through the window, and so that the darks are somewhat darker than the darks of the group appear when they are compared with the strongest darks of the room. And in representing the landscape alone its darks may be made darker than they seem when they are compared with those of the room. But in all work in which it is desired to give the effect of the light and color seen in nature, it will be well to keep the drawing as luminous as possible, and to have the strongest darks in it simply the accents or small bits of dark, which may be pure black or not, according to the nature of the subject and the medium used.
Fixing a charcoal drawing darkens it, especially in the lighter tones. This is another reason why such drawings should be very luminous.
Necessary in all work. — Students often wish to learn to illustrate ; that is, to take lessons that will enable them to make drawings to be reproduced by some of the special processes. They often think that they can do this without going through the severe training needed by the art student. But it is a mistake for any one to study processes until he can draw, and the student who wishes to illustrate should study art in the same way and just as long•as the artist studies. When one knows how to draw, the skill required for making drawings to be specially reproduced will be gained in a very short time.
TESTS FOR VALUES
Perfect sight not common. — The first and most difficult problem for the art student is to learn to see, for only a few ever learn to see perfectly; and those not giving the matter special attention seldom see the actual appearance of either form, light and shade or color.
To realize perfectly what the eye pictures for the mind to read concerning simply the apparent forms of objects requires many years of serious study, and is so difficult that even after this study the artist of reputation is very apt to be deceived and draw what is very different from the image of the eye. In " Free-Hand Drawing" it was shown that a course in free-hand perspective assists the student to avoid faulty representations of the geometric forms, which are most likely to deceive even the practiced eye of the artist. Any student who draws the geometric forms, and tests them as explained in " Free-Hand Drawing," will soon realize that it is difficult to see correctly; for he finds what he thinks he sees to be very different from what the tests prove that he does see, and it is easy for him to convince himself that he cannot see correctly.
Values more difficult than drawing. — To convince an art student that he cannot see light and shade or color correctly is far more difficult than to prove that he cannot see form correctly. To draw correctly requires, first, an eye naturally true, and, second, a serious and extended course of study; but almost every serious student can in time teach himself to represent form correctly. The same student may work many months, even with the assistance of a teacher, and fail to see values or color correctly.
To give the actual facts pictured in the eye concerning light, dark, and color is so difficult that few succeed; and even after years of study many see in nature only the actual facts known, or what they have become accustomed to think they see concerning the local colors of objects.
Values not taught. — If artists and teachers generally made the study of values as important as that of form, doubtless many students who do not understand what value means would become able to see values correctly; but the number would be small compared with that of those who are able to draw correctly, for serious students of the best teachers often work for many months before they realize how incorrectly they see values.
The teacher who insists upon correct values requires much patience and ingenuity, for his pupils cannot readily help themselves, nor can they believe the teacher who tells them, for instance, that they ought to see, in some special group, dark blue lighter than yellow, when they know that they see it as they think it ought to appear, — darker than the yellow. In such cases the teacher must either be content to say : " If you cannot see it, you must draw it as I say, and in time you will see it as I do," or he must prove to them that at first their eyes tell them nothing but the most glaring falsehoods about all that they see. When pupils realize this fact, and have once received a genuine sight impression concerning values, they will ever afterward see things in a new way, and their improvement will be rapid.
Eye sees details instead of values. — To see values and realize the effect of the masses, the eye must be used for this purpoSe only. This is a difficult problem for the student, for naturally the eye is focused upon a single detail, which is clearly seen. The vision passes rapidly over the whole of the group, taking in all its details by means of this careful study, which is of just the same nature as that which the scientist bestows through his microscope upon the specimens he studies. The only difference in their methods is that the motion of the eye of the art student is very rapid, and that the lens of the eye takes the place of the microscope. The scientist sees details, and very properly, since these are what he is to describe. The art student also sees details, and too often his work indicates that he must have examined each little bit as if through a microscope. In his first drawings he usually so magnifies the importance of every detail that his drawing is unintelligible, and gives not the faintest suggestion of the impression produced upon the eye which sees the effects of light, dark, and color in their true relations.
The art student must learn that the artist and scientist work for entirely different ends, — that the aim of the artist is not detail, but the spirit and character of the whole, and that this cannot be obtained without making it of first importance and thinking first of the long lines, the large masses, and the effect of the whole subject.
Blurred vision necessary. — The effect of any subject is never realized when the student looks at any one part ; he must look at the group all at once. The whole of any subject can be seen at once I only by seeing all its parts equally and thus indistinctly. That is, I the eye must focus on no one part, but be in focus for an object in
front of or behind the group ; then all its parts may be seen indistinctly at one time. The student will realize what is meant by blurred vision by closing the eyes gradually until the group can barely be seen between the lids and the lashes ; this cuts off most of the light and obstructs the sight so that the objects are blurred. Blurred vision may also be obtained by holding a pencil in the hand and in front of the group and looking at the pencil, which will be seen sharply, while the group will be seen very indistinctly. To see the whole at once is difficult for the art student, but the artist finds it easier than the searching gaze which the art student employs, because the artist sees effects unconsciously with blurred vision, which does not tire the eyes.
Many aids to the correct seeing of values have been used ; among them the following are those of most assistance to the student.
Claude Lorrain mirror. —This is a mirror which gives a reduced image of the object, and has a black reflecting surface which diminishes the light so that the relative values may be studied more readily than in the group. A substitute may be made by painting one side of an ordinary piece of plate glass with ivory black.
Common mirror. — This is often used by artists and is a valuable aid, as its image reverses the lines of the group and the drawing, and by showing the parts in new relations makes errors prominent to which the eye has become accustomed. When the drawing is placed beSide the grOup, and the mirror as far as possible from the group, it enables comparisons to be Made from a distance twice that which could otherwise be obtained. The student will obtain much assistance from this mirror.
Diminishing glass. — This is a lens concave on one or both sides, which produces a small clear image of the group. The image is so small that it may readily be seen at one glance, and thus the values of the different parts be more easily seen. But even here the tendency is for the students to study the details of the image instead of its effects, and thus lose the advantage to be derived from the glass.
Though these aids are very valuable, they often fail to make the student see for the first time the fact that a dark color may appear lighter than a light color, and the only means on which, according to my experience, the beginner can safely depend for corrections of values are the blur glass and the card.
The blur glass. — This is simply an ordinary magnifying glass of about 15 inches focus. It should not be less than 12 inches focus or more than i6 inches or i8 inches. A rough lens about 2 inches diameter can be obtained at an optician's for about fifteen cents, and may be framed by cutting a circular hole in a piece of cardboard so that it will receive the lens, and then cutting smaller holes in two more pieces, and gluing one to each side of the first piece. The glass is thus protected so that it will not break if dropped, and the cardboard is also an improvement because it hides from sight all except the parts seen through the glass. If this glass is held so that the group may be seen through it, the outlines will be blurred and all detail softened. In this way the masses of light and dark are rendered so prominent that the student sees them as perhaps he never would without , the glass.
It is said that the use of such a glass must be injurious, and consequently pupils should not be allowed to use it. Those who think thus do not understand that the glass is to be used not for seeing, but to prevent seeing, and should not be used to look through, but to look at. In other words, the eyes must be focused upon the glass held in the hand, and not upon the group behind the glass, for if the student looks through the glass at the group, he will strain his eyes and be almost as badly off as when without the blur glass, for his eyes will adjust to the glass so that he will still see too much detail.
To teach the proper use of the glass, secure a sheet of gray paper or of cloth of one color upon the wall or any vertical surface so that its lower portion may rest upon a horizontal surface. Ask the student to make a light and shade drawing representing simply these two surfaces. This will cause him to decide as to the difference in value between the two. Having made the drawing, ask him to hold the blur glass up so as to see through it the vertical surface, and *then ask him to look not through the glass, but at it, to discover the color which it appears. Now ask him to hold the glass so that through it
the horizontal surface is seen, and then to look as before at the glass instead of through it. Having held the glass carefully to see the color it appears to be when in front of each of the two surfaces, ask the student to move the glass up and down, slowly at first and then as rapidly as possible, so that it shall transmit first the color of the vertical surface and then that of the horizontal. If this motion is continued and the student looks at the glass, he will discover that the difference in color between the two surfaces is much greater than what. he thought he saw and what his drawing represents ; and he will at the same time have gained a true impression of values and learned to use his glass properly. The use of paper or cloth of one color is of great assistance in enabling the pupil to look at the glass instead of through it, and this experiment should be the first lesson of pupils old enough to apply it, and should be repeated as often as is necessary to enable all the students to use the glass properly ; for if they do not use it properly they injure their eyes and destroy their best chance of becoming independent and able to correct their own light and shade studies. When large masses are compared, the blur glass should always be held as far as possible from the eye ; and when any part is studied it should be held, if possible, far enough from the eye to cause the part to blur into a formless mass of color which fills the entire glass, and which is to be looked at as if ,upon the glass.
Instead of moving one blur glass to cover the parts to be compared, two blur glasses may be used ; they should be held the same distance from the eye and so that the two parts to be compared may be seen at the same time.
One of the strongest influences causing false ideas of value is the contrast of light and dark in juxtaposition, and the tendericy of the student to compare only parts which are near each other. If he would compare parts with others farther away and with the masses, he would see how contrast effects deceive the eye. When the blur glass is properly used, it will show the relations of parts to each other and to the masses, but some students will require more assistance than the use of the blur glass.
Black paper. — Pupils who cannot see values by the use of the glass so as to discover, for instance, that the shadow surface of the plinth (Fig. T4) appears darker than the foreground, will be assisted if the teacher holds in front of the group a sheet of black paper in which holes are cut so that through one the student sees simply a part of the shadow, while through the other he sees simply part of the foreground. When the two parts to be compared are seen without the influence of the surrounding parts, there are few students who will not see the values truly. The paper should be held near the group, and both sides should be a dead black in order that the back surface of the paper may not reflect light enough to the group to change its values.
The difficulty is to enable the student to realize for the first time that the light object often appears darker than the dark object. A mug of a light yellow color and having a pewter cover is an excellent object to use to show this fact. If it is placed on its side so that the cover is toward the light, the cover will appear lighter than the shadow surface of the mug. Few young pupils will realize this fact, and those who do realize it will be astonished to see the great difference in value which is shown when the two parts are compared by the use of the black paper which the teacher holds near the mug. Pupils who fail to see the values by use of the blur glass will almost always see them when they see in this way simply isolated spots of each color, and teachers should use this test when students show that they do not use the glass properly.
Black card. — The pupils may apply this principle by using a piece of black cardboard through which small holes have been made at varying intervals. The card may be of any smooth piece of Cardboard. The holes should be clean, round, and of varying sizes, and they should not press out the surface of the card ; if this happens, it should be pressed back or trimmed with a sharp knife until both sides are smooth and flat. Both surfaces should then be colored with india ink or any dead black color; and also the edges of the holes. If this card is held in front of the group, it will hide from the eye all except the small parts which may be seen through the pin holes, and the card may be held so that any two parts whose values are to be decided may be seen through different holes. This card is of great assistance to elementary pupils, and it should be used occasionally to verify their work. The size of the holes depends upon the distance of the group and the distance at which the card is held from the eye, and may vary from a pin hole to one s or IA of an inch in diameter.
'This card will assist the student to obtain true values and also to obtain what is essential and difficult to secure, — a gray and luminous drawing. The tendency of the pupil is to pile on the charcoal and make a black, heavy drawing, and it is difficult for pupils to realize that effect and solidity are not due to black, but to contrasts of masses of grays ; when the student looks through the card which is shaded by the hand, he realizes that there are no blacks in his subject.
The chief value of the black card lies in the fact that it enables • each pupil to remove at will the deceptive effects due to the contrasts of different values. If he could or would use the blur glass properly, the card would not be necessary ; but it is so difficult for some to look at the glass instead of through it that the card is very helpful.
Black frame. - A piece of black leather or cardboard in which a rectangular opening is cut will help to impress this fact of the luminosity of nature's effects upon the student, and to make him realize that a true drawing cannot be one which is black or heavy.
Light into shadow. — The student will often be assisted to see the values of two parts, as, for instance, the cast shadow upon the white cast (Fig. is), and that of the cast upon the panelling, if the teacher holds or places an object so that it shall throw the whole of the Cast into shadow. The pupil will often make the cast shadow on the cast as dark as that on the wall, for the contrast of the shadow and light upon the cast makes the shadow appear much darker than it really is. If the light parts of the cast are thrown into shadow, the part originally shadow changes but little in value, for it receives no more, and generally but little less, light than at first ; and when the effect of contrast is removed, the student will see that the cast shadow on the cast is much lighter than that on the background.
Study at a distance. —The least mechanical and most satisfactory test, and"the one which should be applied most frequently, is simply placing the drawing beside the group and comparing it with the group when the student is as far as possible from the group. When comparing them', the eyes should be out of focus, so that the drawing and the group may be seen equally at the same time, and the student should ask if the drawing gives the impression of the group and of nature, or if it gives the effect of a sheet of paper slightly tinted. Does it present the same masses of light and dark that the group does, and are the contrasts of these masses•as song as those of the group? Are the darks of the drawing as simple and dark as those of the group, or are they cut up by exaggerated reflected lights ? Are the lights of the drawing as broad and as light as those of the group, or are they cut up by exaggerated grays ? The student who will ask these questions when he sees both drawing and group equally, and of course indistinctly, can hardly fail to discover the most important errors of the drawing.
It is very important that the drawing be thus seen from a distance repeatedly from its early stages, until its effect agrees with that of the group ; when this happens the student must complete the drawing by giving the essential detail. While drawing this he must be careful not to change the masses, and until the drawing is completed it must be viewed from a distance occasionally in order to make sure that the detail is not too prominent.
Use of the hand. — A convenient and simple way of obtaining the results given by the use of the black card is afforded by looking through a small opening which may be formed by compressing and bending the first finger upon the thumb. The hand may be moved so that one after another the parts to be Compared may be seen through the finger, or both hands may be used and two parts compared at once by viewing one through one hand and the other through the other.
Tipping the head. — Another test, which is simple and very valuable, is that of tipping the head until the eyes are in a vertical line instead of in a horizontal one. Any one who will view the simplest landscape in this way will be surprised to see how much more color it seems to have than when seen naturally. The principal, reason for this is that when the head is tipped the objects are seen in such unusual relations that their forms are not thought of, and all the attention is attracted to contrasts of light, shade, and color. The student of color will find that this test accomplishes the same result as the use of the blur glass, and it will be equally valuable in the study of light and shade.
Tests inferior to feeling. — At first every student will require some mechanical test or aid to enable him to see values correctly, but he must not depend upon these tests any more than in determining contours upon measurements of proportions ; for tests are of no more assistance in producing a work of art whose values are true than measurements are in producing correct drawing. Good art can never be produced mechanically, and the artist must depend upon. his eyes and his feeling for both good drawing and good values. But the student will obtain his education in the direction of values just as he will in that of form, and if he does not adopt some means of discovering the errors of his first studies, he will repeat theM and possibly never discover them.
Tests lead to feeling. — The student is advised to apply all tests with great patience in his first work. He should be satisfied to prove his work as carefully as possible until he knows that his eyes are to be depended upon for results which will harmonize with those given by the application of the tests. After this he must depend upon his eyes and his feeling for the fine results which distinguish art from industry. The student who does not use the tests until he has proven his ability to see correctly without them, or at least to obtain by sight results equal to those given by the application of the tests, acts very unwisely and will be compelled to spend much more time in acquiring his elementary training than he would if he chose to profit by the tests. My experience has shown that students who think it unnecessary to apply tests generally make a series of drawings of which the last is no better than the first, until they finally discover that the rest of the class have completed work which they are as far from doing as they were at the first of the year. At this time they generally decide to try the tests, and the result of such decision is often as surprising to the student as to the teacher ; for frequently I have known such students to make a drawing as false as possible, and the next day, after having seriously tried to follow directions and apply tests, to make a drawing which was quite true and satisfactory.
The student must use tests in his first work, for in no other way can he learn how different appearances are from the facts, but he must aim to dispense with the blur glass and other mechanical means as soon as possible. In order to do this he should begin by working by sight without the aid of any tests, and should continue in this way until he thinks his drawing is correct, when he should apply the tests. When he has worked long enough to obtain by eye alone results which the tests do not change, he may continue his work without the aid of mechanical tests, depending partly upon comparisons at a distance, blurring the eyes, and tipping the head, but principally upon his own feeling and cultivated perceptions.